How do you correctly rate a coil spring?

In the modern age, coil springs are being used in ways that were never before imagined. This is why it has become increasingly critical to know the exact spring rate that you are installing. To complicate matters further, the way a spring is installed will vary the way a car ‘feels’. So what should you consider?

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The Purpose of Coil Springs

Coil springs are used in many mechanical devices, from watches to car shocks.

They are often called compression springs, torsion springs or helical springs. They work in storing energy so to release it to absorb any shock or maintain a force between two contacting surfaces.

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How Do Coil Springs Work?

Coil springs essentially work by resisting their extension or compression, and absorb mechanical energy, storing it and later releasing it.

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Spring Energised Seals

A spring energised seal is a signle acting seal which is often used for dynamic and static applications; they are effective in a variety of applications.

They are frequently used when there is a requirement for a higher resistance to chemical media – the seal may be needed to operate in extremes of temperature and where good extrusion and compression characteristics are needed.

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Coil springs at Clifford Springs

Choose Clifford Springs for seal energising products and springs!

We manufacture coil springs, otherwise named as helical springs and specialise in the manufacture of seal energising product with the highest standard CNC machines.

Below you can find a brief description of our coil springs:

Canted coil springs – Canted coil springs at single height are used for their exclusive load characteristics. They are generally crafted from customer supply samples along with drawings using carbon-based materials, Elgiloy, Hastelloy, and stainless steel.

Peak springs – These particular springs are used in high-performance seals that require an anti-extrusion device to replace a stainless steel or Inconel spring. Peak springs have a unique characteristic that means when the deal begins to wear and the spring eventually comes into contact with the shaft, the spring will not score the shaft.

Garter springs – Garter springs are manufactured in high and low volume for a variety of different markets that include the automotive industry to model makers who utilise the spring as a drive band. Our garter springs are able to be supplied with a straight shipment or assembled into the ring.

Helical seal springs – These springs are manufactured on advanced CNC spring coilers, and can be provided by the metre, alternatively on 50-metre and 100-metre spools.

Meander springs – Meander springs are specific to dynamic sealing applications and are carried in 301-grade stainless steel, along with availabilities in Hastelloy and Elgiloy.

Please visit our website to view our stock and other services!

Coil Springs – helical springs

Coil springs, often called helical springs, are mechanical devices.

There is a variety of coil springs however they all essentially store energy due to resilience and release it, to absorb impact or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces.

Types of Coil Spring

Compression: Compressed coil springs are crafted to resist compression. A typical compression coil spring can be seen in many car suspension systems.

Tension/extension: Tension/extension coil springs will often have a hook and eye form at either end for attachment, which is crafted to resist stretching.

Torsion: Torsion coil springs are used to resist any twisting actions, and can frequently be found in clothes pegs.

Following on from the torsion coil spring; the material of the spring will react in torsion when the spring is being extended or compressed. The spring’s quality will be judged on the amount of energy it can absorb.

Please visit our website to view our coil springs and other products!

Garter springs

A garter spring is the name given to coiled steel spring that is connected both ends making a circular shape.

Garter springs will frequently be used in belt-driven motors, electrical connectors and oil seals. While compression garter springs exercise outward radial forces, extension garter springs exercise inward radial forces.

Manufacturing a garter spring follows a similar process to that or a regular coiled spring, although the ends will be joined together. Similar to a majority of springs, the material properties of garter springs will be made up or either carbon steel or stainless steel wire.

Garter springs are mainly effective at handling changes in pressure, temperature, viscosity and volume.

The industrial uses for common garter springs will involve being used for gear box seals, hydraulic pump seals, and washing machine seals.

The automotive uses for the common garter spring will often involve being used for air conditioning seals, diesel engine seals, off-road wheel seals, pinion seals, shock absorbing seals, transmission seals and valve stem seals.

Please visit the website for further information about our garter springs and other springs we can provide you with!

Types of garter springs

Garter springs are coiled steel springs that are connected at either end to create a circular shape.

Garter springs will often be used in oil seals, shaft seals, belt-driven motors, and electrical connectors.

There are essentially two types of garter spring: compression and extension garter springs – compression garter springs will exert outward radial forces, and extension springs will do the opposite.
Regarding their manufacturing process, it does not differ from the manufacture of regular coiled springs, the only addition being the ends joined together.
Along with many other springs, garter springs will typically be made using carbon or stainless steel wire.

Compression garter springs

As aforementioned, compression garter springs are a type of coiled spring that exerts outward radial forces away from the centre.
Compression springs will frequently be manufactured with thick steel wire that has large coils; compression springs are crafted to be bale to handle heavy loads all the while being able to return to their original extended position.
The springs will store any potential energy when they are compressed (the length of the spring will decrease_, and exert any kinetic energy when released. Compression garter springs will use this principle to withstand forces acting on it from the outside. They could potentially be placed inside a circular object to maintain the circular shape of the object – take the theory of squeezing a rubber ball; the ball will naturally contract when squeezed but will return to its original state after the pressure has been released.

Extension garter springs

An extension garter spring is essentially on the opposite side of the spring spectrum.
Again they are a form of coiled spring, this particular spring will exert an inward radial force that moves toward the centre. Extension springs store potential energy in their extended form and naturally want to contract quickly, something that is vital when dabbling with pressurised gases and fluids.
Extension garter springs repel forces from the centre, thus they can be placed on the outside of any circular object for it to maintain its shape.
A comparison is one of a bracelet – it is extended to fit around the wearer’s hand and then proceeds to snap back into place around the wrist.
Extension springs are frequently used, more so than garter springs as they actually use less material (smaller circumference and thinner wire), along with their quicker response rate and efficiency to change.

Please visit our website for further information about our garter springs and other services we provide.

Energy Absorbing Springs VICTREX®

Clifford Spring creates energy-absorbing springs made with VICTREX® PEEK polymer meet the extreme demands of the oil and gas industry

Clifford Spring Company was faced with the task of creating an energy absorbing spring for the oil and gas industry that was non corrosive, chemical resistant with high and low temperature resistance. Clifford Spring Company selected VICTREX PEEK polymer to develop the springs to reduce wear and damage.

VICTREX PEEK polymer, the high-performance polymer manufactured by Victrex plc, with its unique combination of high and low temperature resistance, inherent strength, and chemical resistance, has become the material of choice for the manufacture of seal and backup rings in the oil and gas industry. Read more about the exceptional qualities of Victrex PEEK Polymer properties.

However, the weakness of seals has always been the necessary addition of the metallic energy absorber, which in extreme circumstances, if the seal wears, can come in contact with and irreparably damage the shaft.

The Clifford Spring Company based in Redditch in the UK, with over 40 years experience in manufacturing energizing springs for this sector, has developed a solution to this challenging problem, producing energy-absorbing springs using VICTREX PEEK polymer.

“The major benefits of using an energy absorber made with VICTREX PEEK are that corrosion is eliminated in ferrous-based energy absorbers and the absorber made with VICTREX PEEK polymer resists virtually all aggressive chemicals, solvents and lubricants used within the oil and gas industry,” said John Clifford, managing director at Clifford Springs. “Further, if the seal should become worn and the energy absorber component is made from the same material as the seal itself, then there will be no damage to the shaft.”

An additional benefit of using VICTREX PEEK polymer in this application is that the overall weight of the seals is reduced due to the elimination of metallic components, and there are no issues with differing rates of thermal expansion as both the seal and the energy absorber have the same co-efficient of thermal expansion.

The energy absorber spring made with VICTREX PEEK polymer can be manufactured as a totally encapsulated item, or as a Garter type spring where the spring made with VICTREX PEEK polymer can be added to the seal as a secondary operation, following molding or machining of the seal.

The energy absorbers are produced from VICTREX PEEK monofilament extruded by Zyex Ltd of Stonehouse in the UK, a facility that is capable of spinning VICTREX PEEK filaments from over 2mm down to 10 microns in diameter. Zyex has more than 20 years experience in producing such monofilaments, multi-filaments and staple fibres. Their exacting standards mean that VICTREX PEEK can also be woven into extremely fine meshes and used as filters in chemically aggressive hot environments and braided into cable harnesses to give protection from abrasion in demanding oil and gas and aerospace applications.

The total encapsulation method carried out by the seal manufacturer prevents the seal lipping out and therefore prolongs the life of the seal. A further advantage of having a thermoplastic spring in the Garter type of seal is that the monofilaments can be produced in virtually any color in the spectrum, allowing instant identification ensuring the correct energy absorber has been fitted to the seal.

The energy absorbers made with VICTREX PEEK polymer are available with an outside body diameter of 1.40mm up to 10.00mm. The maximum single length that can be produced is 2.4M, this equates to a spring diameter of approximately 750 mm. multiple springs can be joined end to end to give a larger spring diameter.

Access our Literature for more information on materials and applications.

Have an application challenge? Visit Ask the Expert for direct technical support or Contact Us to learn how Victrex can help enhance your product solution.

 

Festive greetings from Clifford Springs!

Here at Clifford Springs, we’ve like to take this opportunity to wish a very Happy Christmas to all of our clients and their families, friends, colleagues and customers in this very special time of year!

2014 has been an incredibly special year for Clifford Springs: business is a continuous source of growth for the company and we’ve seen welcomed a host of new customers and clients alike whilst continuing our strong ties with our repeat clients.

We wish you the very best throughout this holiday period and we hope that the time you spend with your loved ones is both joyful and filled with love.

Have a wonderful Christmas and an extra special New Year.

Here’s to 2015,

Best wishes,

Clifford Springs